6 Ensure environmental sustainability

Tracking Progress

The percentage of land covered by forests in Zambia decreased from 66% in 1990 to 55.9% in 2007, and this has been a serious cause of concern. High priority efforts to curb deforestation and to regenerate forest cover is a critical factor to protect and enable the more sustainable use of the country’s rich natural resource base and be more resilient to climate change shocks. With regards to sustainable access to drinking water and sanitation, the proportion of households without access to a clean water source was reduced from 51% in 1990 to 40% in 2006. More efforts in this direction to reach the target of 25.5% is recommended, enabled through access to boreholes replacing old wells in rural settings and greater access to treated municipal water in peri-urban areas. The share Millennium Development Goals of the population without access to improved sanitation grew from 26% in 1991 to 36.1% in 2006. This trend undermines progress in achieving MDG 7 and remains a significant challenge. Strategies that support positive trends in these fields include greater community management of forestry resources, strict monitoring and curbing of illegal logging practices, curbing unplanned urban settlements, and promotion of public-private partnerships that provide accessible but also affordable water and sanitation services to poorer urban and rural communities.

UNDP's work in Zambia

Targets for MDG7
  1. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
  2. Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
    • Proportion of land area covered by forest and proportion of species threatened with extinction
    • CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)
    • Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
    • Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
    • Proportion of total water resources used
    • Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
  3. Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    • Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
    • Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
  4. Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020
    • Proportion of urban population living in slums